Aliens Among Us (The Seven Churches - Vol. 3)

Online Library of Liberty
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Aliens Among Us (The Seven Churches - Vol. 3) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Aliens Among Us (The Seven Churches - Vol. 3) book. Happy reading Aliens Among Us (The Seven Churches - Vol. 3) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Aliens Among Us (The Seven Churches - Vol. 3) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Aliens Among Us (The Seven Churches - Vol. 3) Pocket Guide.

The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web , and lobbied for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general. Some of the DMCA 's provisions notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers.

Beginning in the middle of and ensuing for several years, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed sporgery by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group. Some investigators said that some spam had been traced to church members. On January 14, , a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube.

On January 28, , an Anonymous video appeared on YouTube calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, The Arbitration Committee of the Wikipedia internet encyclopedia decided in May to restrict access to its site from Church of Scientology IP addresses, to prevent self-serving edits by Scientologists. The legal status of Scientology or Scientology-related organizations differs between jurisdictions. The church argues that Scientology is a genuine religious movement that has been misrepresented, maligned, and persecuted. Scientology has often encountered opposition due to its strong-arm tactics directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization.

In the mid-sixties, the Church of Scientology was banned in several Australian states, starting with Victoria in On this point the report stated,. It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetic techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names.

The Australian Church was forced to operate under the name of the " Church of the New Faith " as a result, the name and practice of Scientology having become illegal in the relevant states. In the High Court of Australia ruled in a unanimous decision that the Church of Scientology was "undoubtedly a religion and deserving of tax exemption.

In , the IRS removed Scientology's tax-exempt status, asserting that its activities were commercial and operated for the benefit of Hubbard, rather than for charitable or religious purposes. Scientology is officially recognized as a religion in the United States. Church of Scientology International in The New York Times noted in this connection that the Church of Scientology had funded a campaign which included a whistle-blower organization to publicly attack the IRS, as well as hiring of private investigators to look into the private lives of IRS officials.

Goldberg Jr. Hubbard's death, no one was getting rich from Scientology. The church was required only to resubmit new applications for exemption to the IRS Exempt Organizations EO division, which was told "not to consider any substantive matters" because those issues had been resolved by the committee. Elsewhere, Scientology is recognized as a religion in Australia, [] [] Portugal, [] Spain, [] Slovenia , [] Sweden, [] [] [] Croatia , [] Hungary [] and Kyrgyzstan.

Scientology is not recognized as a religion in Canada. The ruling ended a five-year legal battle by Scientologist Louisa Hodkin, who sought the legal right to marry at the Church of Scientology chapel in central London. The opinion by five supreme court justices redefined religion in law, rendering the definition "out of date" in restricting religious worship to "reverence or veneration of God or of a Supreme Being. Scientology has been accused of being "a business, often given to criminal acts, and sometimes masquerading as a religion. Course offerings ranged from German Marks DM Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membership offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless placed in the millions.

Defending its practices against accusations of profiteering , the Church has countered critics by drawing analogies to other religious groups who have established practices such as tithing , or require members to make donations for specific religious services.

Since Germany has considered Scientology to be in conflict with the principles of the nation's constitution. It is seen as an anticonstitutional sect and a new version of political extremism and because there is "evidence for intentions against the free democratic basic order" it is observed by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution.

Department of State said that Scientologists were discriminated against in Germany, but condemned the comparisons to the Nazis' treatment of Jews as extremely inappropriate, as did a United Nations Special Rapporteur. State Department formally criticized Germany for discriminating against Scientologists and began to note Scientologists' complaints of harassment in its annual human rights reports, [] as well as the annual International Religious Freedom Reports it has released from onwards. France and Belgium have not recognized Scientology as a religion, and Stephen A.

Kent , writing in , noted that recognition had not been obtained in Ireland , Luxembourg , Israel or Mexico either. In Greece, Scientology is not recognized as a religion by the Greek government, and multiple applications for religious status have been denied, notably in and In the Netherlands , Scientology was granted tax exempt status in October The court ruled that because auditing fees and course costs were more expensive than most commercial education institutions, Scientology appeared to be aimed at making a profit.

Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names. It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites. Because of this, it is very difficult for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own, independent of the official Church of Scientology.

Scientology has filed suit against a number of individuals who have attempted to set up their own auditing practices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down. The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Most recently the Italian Supreme Court agreed with the American IRS that the church's financial system is analogous to the practices of other groups and not out of line with its religious purposes.

Based on letters from former followers of the religion, he said that there were "allegations of forced imprisonment, coerced abortions, and embezzlement of church funds, of physical violence and intimidation, blackmail and the widespread and deliberate abuse of information obtained by the organization". Describing the available scholarship on Scientology, David G.

Bromley and Douglas E. Cowan stated in that "most scholars have concluded that Scientology falls within the category of religion for the purposes of academic study, and a number have defended the Church in judicial and political proceedings on this basis. Urban writes that "Scientology's efforts to get itself defined as a religion make it an ideal case study for thinking about how we understand and define religion. According to the Encyclopedia of Religious Controversies in the United States , "even as Scientology raises questions about how and who gets to define religion, most scholars recognize it as a religion, one that emerges from and builds on American individualism and the spiritual marketplace that dominated s America.

Bromley comments that Scientology "could gain strength by adding to the new perspective on existence, the hope and human meaning that only a transcendent creed can give. Bromley and Cowan noted in that Scientology's attempts "to gain favor with new religion scholars" had often been problematic. Regis Dericquesbourg writes about the efficacy of Scientology in imparting knowledge: "Scientology indeed not only brings knowledge, it also brings personal introspection through auditing, and transmission in upper levels is not merely reading texts: what is transmitted is experienced through a solo or duo auditing experience.

Frank K.


Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington University in St. Louis wrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typical forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritual life. While acknowledging that a number of his colleagues accept Scientology as a religion, sociologist Stephen A. Kent writes: "Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one element of which is religious" [emphasis in the original].

Donna Batten in the Gale Encyclopedia of American Law writes, "A belief does not need to be stated in traditional terms to fall within First Amendment protection. For example, Scientology—a system of beliefs that a human being is essentially a free and immortal spirit who merely inhabits a body—does not propound the existence of a supreme being, but it qualifies as a religion under the broad definition propounded by the Supreme Court.

Gordon Melton asserts that while the debate over definitions of religion will continue, "scholars will probably continue in the future to adopt a broad definition, thus including Scientology in a wider religious field. The material contained in the OT levels has been characterized as bad science fiction by critics, while others claim it bears structural similarities to gnostic thought and ancient Hindu beliefs of creation and cosmic struggle.

Scholar Luigi Berzano of the University of Turin listed five religious characteristics of Scientology: a set of doctrines leading to a spiritual goal, a community of believers, an authority figure Hubbard , ritual practices, and "an ethical-moral view of life. Hubbard grew up in a climate that was very critical of organized religion, and frequently quoted anti-religious sentiments in his early lectures.

Hubbard did not want to found a religion: he discovered that what he was talking about in fact was religion. This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memories from former lives.


He had to defend himself about this to his friends. He notes that Hubbard discussed religion and the concept of God even in the years leading up to the emergence of Scientology, and that he did not "rush into religion" but rather, "discovered it through the development of his work with pre-clears. Drawing parallels to similar struggles for identity in other religious movements such as Theosophy and Transcendental Meditation , Frenschkowski sees in Hubbard's lectures "the case of a man whose background was non-religious and who nevertheless discovers that his ideas somehow oscillate between 'science' in a very popular sense , 'religion' and 'philosophy', and that these ideas somehow fascinate so many people that they start to form a separate movement.

Frenschkowski observes that the text is partly biblical in structure and that this development is a component of Scientology's metamorphosis into a religion, written at a point when the nature of the new movement was unclear. The Church of Scientology denounces the idea of Hubbard starting a religion for personal gain as an unfounded rumor. Scientology can be seen as a UFO religion in which the existence of extraterrestrial entities operating unidentified flying objects UFOs are an element of belief.

Lewis , [] while Susan Palmer draws several parallels with Raelianism. Scientology is unique within the UFO culture because of this secretiveness, as well as because of the capitalist format under which they operate. Scientology is also difficult to categorize. While it bears strong similarities to the Ashtar Command or the Aetherius Society , its emphasis upon the Xenu event as the central message of the group seems to place them within the ancient astronaut tradition. Either way, Scientology is perhaps most different from other UFO groups in their attempt to keep all of the space opera stuff under wraps.

They really would have preferred the rest of us not to know about Xenu and the galactic federation. Alas, such secrets are hard to keep []. Regardless of such statements by critics, Hubbard wrote and lectured openly about the material he himself called "space opera. According to David G. Bromley , Scientology is "part therapy, part religion, part UFO group. It's a mix of things unlike any other religious group out there.

The general orientation of Hubbard's philosophy owes much to Will Durant , author of the popular classic The Story of Philosophy ; Dianetics is dedicated to Durant. Vaughn Mccall, Professor and Chairman of the Georgia Regents University writes, "Both Freudian theory and Hubbard assume that there are unconscious mental processes that may be shaped by early life experiences, and that these influence later behavior and thought.

Joseph Cheesman Thompson , a U. Navy officer who had studied with Freud [] and when writing to the American Psychological Association in , he stated that he was conducting research based on the "early work of Freud". In Dianetics , Hubbard cites Hegel as a negative influence — an object lesson in "confusing" writing.

Why Is The Book Of Enoch Not In The Bible

Changes in fashions, away from heavy woollen cloths and leather, towards lighter, more colorful and fashionable fabrics, also helped stimulate the demand for silks. Actuated however by his ambition, and even by his fears, he soon retired out of France, and took shelter with the duke of Britanny, who was desirous of strengthening himself against the designs of the lady of Beaujeu by the friendship and credit of the duke of Orleans. But after the destruction of Jerusalem, Paul sent him back to his master carrying the letter to Philemon. To oppose them, the duke raised a numerous, but ill-disciplined army, which he put under the command of the duke of Orleans, the count of Dunois, and others of the French nobility. This is the first resurrection. In the purest sense, you are correct; the text of Genesis does not say that Enoch was, taken up to heaven.

Mann, Scientology is considered nondenominational, accepting all people regardless of their religions background, ethnicity, or educational attainment. As noted, elements of the Eastern religions are evident in Scientology, [] in particular the concept of karma found in Hinduism and Jainism. In the s, Hubbard was in contact with Jack Parsons , a rocket scientist and member of the Ordo Templi Orientis then led by Aleister Crowley , and there have been suggestions that this connection influenced some of the ideas and symbols of Scientology.

Gordon Melton have stated that Crowley's teachings bear little if any resemblance to Scientology doctrine. Gordon Melton writes that Scientology has its roots in Esoteric thought. He cited the significance of understanding Scientology's appeal as aligned with Esoteric tradition. The Church is a "significant revision" and "meaningful revitalization" within the esoteric tradition. Melton states that Scientology can also be traced back to Gnosticism, Manicheanism, Freemasonry and Theosophy. According to James R. Lewis , Scientology is in the same lineage of supernatural religious movements such as New Thought.

Scientology goes beyond this and refers to their religio-therapeutic practices as religious technology. Lewis wrote, "Scientology sees their psycho-spiritual technology as supplying the missing ingredient in existing technologies—namely, the therapeutic engineering of the human psyche. Hubbard was said to be an accomplished hypnotist, and close acquaintances such as Forrest Ackerman Hubbard's literary agent and A.

Ron Hubbard expertise in hypnosis led to the discovery of the Dianetic engram. Hypnotism plants, by positive suggestion, one or another form of insanity. It is usually a temporary planting, but sometimes the hypnotic suggestion will not "lift" or remove in a way desirable to the hypnotist. The word Scientology , as coined by L. The term scientology had been used in published works at least twice before Hubbard. In The New Word poet and lawyer Allen Upward first used scientology to mean blind, unthinking acceptance of scientific doctrine compare scientism. These two triangles are present in the Scientology symbol.

The lower triangle, the ARC triangle, is a summary representation of the knowledge the Scientologist strives for. Among Scientologists, the letters ARC are used as an affectionate greeting in personal communication, for example at the end of a letter. Scientologists seek to attain spiritual development through study of Scientology materials and auditing.

The subject called Technology or Tech in Scientology jargon is structured in a series of levels or gradients of gradually increasing complexity. The sequence of study "training" and auditing "processing" levels is termed the " Bridge to Total Freedom ", or simply "the Bridge". The Church of Scientology teaches the principle of reciprocity, involving give-and-take in every human transaction.

Bromley , religious studies professor, working toward being an "Operating Thetan" means moving up the Bridge to Total Freedom, "which at the highest level transcends material law. The South Park episode " Trapped in the Closet " publicized the story of Xenu , based directly on the actual Scientology Operating Thetan III document, [] and accompanied by an onscreen caption reading "This is what Scientologists actually believe".

After explaining these beliefs, the character representing the church's president ultimately reveals to Stan that the church is in reality a money-making scam. Paul Thomas Anderson 's film The Master features a religious organization called "The Cause" that has many similarities to Scientology. Remini, a TV actress and star, was a member of the Church of Scientology for over 30 years and a public proponent of Scientology for years before a public falling out in She is an executive producer of the series. The series follows Remini as she explores the history and workings of the Church, discusses her experiences and interviews ex-members willing to speak out about alleged abuses of the Church.

The initial episode drew 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the belief system and practices. For the organization, see Church of Scientology. For other uses, see Scientology disambiguation. Group of religious beliefs and practices created by American science fiction writer L. See also: Timeline of Scientology and History of Dianetics. Main article: L. Further information: Early life of L. Ron Hubbard and Military career of L. Main article: Scientology and the occult. Main article: Dianetics. Main article: Church of Scientology.

Main article: Free Zone Scientology. Main article: Scientology beliefs and practices. See also: Dianetics and Auditing Scientology. Main articles: Emotional tone scale and Science of Survival. Main article: Purification Rundown. Main article: Introspection Rundown. Main article: Thetan. See also: Operating Thetan and Space opera in Scientology doctrine.

Main article: Fair Game Scientology. Main article: List of Scientology organizations. Main article: Volunteer Ministers. Main article: Scientology controversies. See also: Scientology and the legal system. Further information: Disconnection. See also: Scientology and the Internet and Project Chanology. Main article: Scientology status by country. Main article: Scientology as a business. Main article: Scientology and hypnosis. Main article: Scientology in popular culture. Princeton University Press. Silvertail Books.

Retrieved March 13, London Review of Books. Archived from the original on May 6, Retrieved September 27, Retrieved August 7, December 22, Archived from the original on July 21, Retrieved July 20, Gordon Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America. New York: Garland Pub. July Marburg Journal of Religion.

Archived from the original PDF on June 3, Retrieved March 3, Evening Standard. Archived from the original on June 3, As Miscavige begins to crescendo "our next step is eradicating psychiatry from this planet, we will triumph! Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Searching for Spiritual Unity Archived from the original on September 3, Retrieved January 31, Magia sexualis: sex, magic, and liberation in modern Western esotericism , p.

Religion Compass. Spiegel Online. December 7, Ron October 23, CRA Triangle. Fifteenth American Advanced Clinical Lectures. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Ron Hubbard". Secret Lives. Ron October Religious Studies and Theology.

The Record Series | The Yorkshire Archaeological and Historical Society

Archived from the original on March 12, Retrieved May 8, Originally published by Stephen A. Kent in December What is Scientology? History, Beliefs, Rules, Secrets, and Facts. Sacred Texts in the United States". Journal Book History. Lewis, p. Retrieved September 4, Vaughn September Journal of Religion and Health. Journal of the History of Sexuality. Retrieved November 5, Ron Hubbard First American ed. Archived from the original on July 13, November 6, Retrieved November 23, Sociological Analysis.

Oxford University Press. Bloomsbery Academic. Skeptical Inquirer. Ron Hubbard played". Archived from the original on February 8, Von Dehsen-Scott L. Harris Philosophers and Religious Leaders , p. Letter of April 10, Quoted in Miller, p. Transaction Publishers. The Hidden Story of Scientology. The hidden Story of Scientology. January 4, Archived from the original on October 19, Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry.

The Road to Total Freedom. New York: Columbia University Press. Ron Hubbard's last refuge". New Times San Luis Obispo.

  • Comments Regarding Unusual Statements Found In Ellen G. White's Writings.
  • Did Jesus really rise from the dead? | Common Ground Church?
  • Scientology!
  • Sin & Guilt: Monstrosity Of Mind.
  • Matteo Ricci: A Jesuit in the Ming Court.
  • Navigation menu?

Archived from the original on December 17, Encyclopedia of American Religions. Detroit: Gale. January 30, Archived from the original on November 9, June 23, Freie Zone E. Case No. Archived from the original on September 28, Archived from the original on June 26, Caller-Times, Corpus Christi. Archived from the original on November 5, Retrieved September 6, Zellner Extraordinary Groups , p. Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved July 13, The Sunday Times. Marty Rathbun, who like Rinder is now an independent scientologist Rinder, though a 'heretic' to the church, lives and breathes Independent scientology.

Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on June 25, Retrieved January 14, Rathbun, now a leading figure in a movement for Scientologists to practice independently of the church Ron Commerce, Calif. Retrieved December 21, Syracuse University Pres. Affinities between Scientology and Theosophy. International Conference — Scientology in a scholarly perspective 24—25th January in English and French. Archived from the original on February 16, January Retrieved December 31, Lewis, James R.

Handbook of Scientology. Brill Handbooks on Contemporary Religion. Exploring New Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. June 24, Los Angeles Times. Little, Brown Book Group. Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on March 31, Retrieved August 22, Scientology: The Now Religion. New York: Delacorte Press. The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Emotion, page Archived from the original on October 15, Australian Soul: Religion and Spirituality in the 21st Century. Cambridge University Press. In James R. Lewis ed.

Annals of Emergency Medicine.


Retrieved August 9, Scientology's views on the evils of materialism". Scientology Versus Medicine in Scandal of Scientology. Web Edition. Archived from the original on July 10, Retrieved March 14, Controversial New Religions. Liungman Symbols , p. Phoenix New Times. Village Voice Media. Archived from the original on June 20, Retrieved September 16, Welkos June 24, Archived from the original on January 11, Archived from the original on November 16, The Washington Post.

Retrieved November 30, America's alternative religions. Albany, N. In praise of sociology. Boston: Unwin Hyman. Religion and the Constitution. Princeton, N. J: Princeton University Press. Church of Scientology, Cal. Flinn testimony in Church of Scientology of California, , vol. Accessed November 8, The New York Times.

Archived from the original on May 14, The Nation — via www. BBC News. Cults and new religions: a brief history. Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved July 29, July 5, Live discussion. Washington Post. Retrieved February 4, Deseret News. Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved August 1, Ninety-nine percent of them don't ever darken the door of the church again. Welkes, page A1, June 29, Retrieved July 28, Business Insider. The Daily Telegraph.

Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved June 25, Gordon Melton. Gale Virtual Reference Library. January 8, Vanity Fair. World Religions in America 4th ed. Westminster John Knox Press. Retrieved December 16, Global Post. Archived from the original on February 19, March 11, Petersburg Times.

Archived from the original on May 1, Retrieved September 7, Canada's highest court in upheld the criminal conviction of the Church of Scientology of Toronto and one of its officers for a breach of trust stemming from covert operations in Canadian government offices during the s and s.

Huffington Post. Archived from the original on November 3, Retrieved February 3, A French appeals court on Thursday upheld the Church of Scientology's fraud conviction on charges it pressured members into paying large sums for questionable remedies. Archived from the original on August 19, Retrieved November 3, Retrieved June 21, CNET News.

Archived from the original on April 1, Retrieved May 4, May 22, Archived from the original on July 17, Retrieved June 24, Archived from the original on October 29, Retrieved May 10, Tobin June 23, St Petersburg Times. Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved June 23, Archived from the original on January 17, Root, M. Archived from the original on January 30, Retrieved May 6, New York Post.

Archived from the original on October 24, Retrieved November 27, The Politicker. New York Observer. April 20, Wall Street Journal. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Rolling Stone Magazine. Available from Xenu. Kent September Retrieved May 21, Ron a. Modern Management Technology Defined. US Weekly. National Reporting, — Walter de Gruyter. Archived from the original on December 19, Retrieved November 4, Stafford; Bette Orsini January 9, Archived from the original PDF on January 24, Retrieved April 19, October 27, Archived from the original on January 14, December 28, April 5, Retrieved July 24, Archived from the original on January 7, Retrieved September 19, The Guardian.

Archived from the original on March 7, A Piece of Blue Sky. Carol Publishing Group. Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved October 26, Clearwater Sun : 1A. The Times. July 24, British Medical Journal. Bridge Publications. Retrieved November 10, The Times of India. News Corporation. Web Scout. Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved November 7, San Francisco Chronicle. The Chronicle Publishing Co. Tom Cruise: An Unauthorized Biography. Martin's Press. Bayshore Publications. The Press-Enterprise. The Press-Enterprise Co.

Courthouse News Service. Herald Sun. March 17, Retrieved March 17, News Limited. Archived from the original on March 22, ABC News Australia. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. March 27, Times Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved November 19, Canwest News Service. Archived from the original on November 21, Irish Times. Guardian News and Media Limited.

Sydney Morning Herald.

  • Expert Oracle Exadata (Experts Voice in Oracle).
  • Movies on TV this week Sept. 15, 12222: ‘Alien,’ ‘Aliens’ and more?
  • aliens among us the seven churches vol 3 Manual?
  • Blue Jeans: The Art of the Ordinary.
  • Hook, Line, and Sinker.

Fairfax Digital. New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on April 6, Retrieved November 26, Retrieved June 11, Time Warner. Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved October 29, But the late L. Ron Hubbard's L. Existing industries like brewing shifted away from ale brewing to focus on beer production, and in the process revolutionized the coal industry, coastal transport and the national diet, and transformed the labour force from a female to a male-dominated industry. These successes led to increasing display of confidence of their industrial excellence.

However, what has been under-explored is the contribution of continental migrants, commonly known as aliens or strangers, in the transformation of London.

Upcoming Events

The first wave of mass immigration into England occurred in the spring and summer of with the pending arrival of the Duke of Alva from Spain to suppress the revolt in the Netherlands. It has been estimated that between 60, and , people may have fled the southern Netherlands in this period, among whom were some of the wealthiest and skilled.

Perhaps as many as , to , people may have uprooted between in search of a better life in the Dutch Republic, Germany and England. The third wave of refugees came in the late seventeenth century, when some forty or fifty thousand Huguenots may have fled France to England. In the sixteenth century there were some 10, foreign immigrants in the capital, rising to some 20, by These figures were likely to underestimate the true figure as the more transient migrants were likely to have been excluded.

However, their tendency to concentrate in certain geographical areas as well as in certain crafts enabled them to exert a far reaching impact. Foreign immigrants formed a highly heterogeneous community and fell broadly into three groups. The first consisted of economic migrants, typified by the beer brewers and coopers, who arrived via chain migration at a young age and who concentrated overwhelmingly in the eastern and southern parts of London.

Their influx tended to be small in scale and thus the associated diffusion of skills was slow. Until the late seventeenth century, they tended to be more invisible as many did not settle permanently in London. The religious refugees and exiles formed the third group. They were much more visible because of their en masse immigration, their stronger identity and organization, and their presence had a more dramatic effect on crafts. Those who arrived in London from the s, for example, played a signal role in the introduction of many new and luxury trades, and their settlement in the capital enabled it to produce many goods which previously had to be imported from abroad to satisfy consumer demand.

This case study shows that the processes of diffusion were protracted and non-linear, and that establishing a new industry often took a long time. In addition, the exodus comprised people from all social groups, and from heterogeneous occupational backgrounds. For many, life in a new environment necessitated confronting economic constraints and embracing new opportunities, and often learning a new trade to earn a living.

Modern studies show that the mismatch of skills is a fundamental problem facing many migrants and refugees to the West in the twentieth century 4 and that economic opportunities in the host environment, rather than their geographical origins, are more crucial in determining the occupational patterns of immigrants. The situation was no different in the early modern period. This paper will explore these aspects and examines the obstacles and opportunities presented in each stage.

Silk was manufactured in China in bc but it was not until the xi th or xii th centuries before it took roots in Italy. Despite intense efforts by the English Crown to import the industry from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it was not until the mid-sixteenth century that the industry reached England, pointing to the formidable obstacles in the path of technology transfer. There were several reasons why there was so much interest in establishing a silk industry.

The first relates to the universal appeal of silk as a textile fabric. Beautiful and lustrous to the eye, soft to touch, and elegant to wear, silk had been long regarded as an exotic luxury. However, partly due to the climatic difficulties of cultivating mulberry trees in Europe and partly to the lack of skills, silks had long been imported from abroad and as such were expensive. The second reason why there was an intense desire to establish the industry in England relates to concerns over the balance of trade and the drain of national wealth.

The demand for silk goods expanded enormously in England in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The third possible reason relates to the need to create jobs for the poor. It was understood in governmental circles that establishing new textile industries could create much needed employment opportunities for the old and the poor. However, trade indirectly promoted diffusion outside Italy, and merchants therefore may have played a crucial role in the spread of the industry to northern parts of Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Venetian and Genoese merchants brought silk to Bruges to trade, and it appears that local weavers, partly necessitated by a declining traditional cloth industry in Flanders, 6 and partly encouraged by the presence of a large number of wealthy consumers in Bruges, developed a native silk industry by copying. This pragmatic move by Bruges weavers to develop a differentiated product at a lower cost and lower risk aiming at the mass market reflected the recognition of their inability to compete with Italian goods at the embryonic stage.

It is uncertain when the process of imitation began, but it was not until that the satin weavers were sufficiently numerous and powerful to organize themselves into a guild in Bruges. After the satin industry had been consolidated, efforts were then made to develop the manufacture of costly, pure silk goods, and it was only at this stage that Italian silk weavers were employed, indicating the inability to imitate the higher level of skills.

In the local council granted a Milanese resident in Bruges, Francesco de Prato, a loan of Flemish pounds with the prospect of a further pounds, provided that looms were in operation manufacturing velvet and satin within a year and a half. However, Prato went bankrupt, unable to set up even 25 looms. As in Bruges, the silk industry in Antwerp was initially confined to the manufacture of satin. Once satin weaving was firmly established, attempts were then made to produce more expensive silk products, and these endeavours at product differentiation became more apparent in the s and s.

It is uncertain whether these preceded attempts in Bruges, but in the Antwerp magistrate agreed to give financial support to a damask weaver from Beauvais, Niclaus Davidt. In the merchant-entrepreneur Jan Nuyts also received a state subsidy to manufacture expensive silk stuffs. Indeed, the silk industry in Antwerp received a boost due to the substantial influx of immigrants from Walloon provinces in the s and s. In , of the masters recorded in Antwerp, nearly a quarter were those who had fled from Flanders and the area around Tournai between and In a space of 40 years, immigrants had successfully established production and by great quantities of mixed silks were made in London by the strangers.

Over the next two centuries the industry gradually spread from London to other parts of England. By England had become a significant centre of silk production, based in Spitalfields, Canterbury and Norwich and employed more than , people. This raises the question of what factors were responsible for its successful diffusion. The presence of the royal household in London provided a powerful stimulus to luxury industries. The large size of the royal household meant that it possessed an enormous spending power in the s it is estimated that it numbered 2, persons on its own.

Besides this, the royal household also played a significant part in drawing to London the provincial gentry, the aristocracy and their wealth. In this period it was common for these groups to spend part of their time in the capital and part of their time in the country. From the s, however, their visits became more frequent and many may have spent as long as nine months of the year in the capital.

The presence of the gentry and aristocracy provided a boost to conspicuous consumption, afforded by their wealth and lubricated by their emulative spending. London also housed a significant number of wealthy merchants, who may have numbered as many as in the early seventeenth century. Their presence in turn also helped to fuel demand for luxuries. Changes in fashions, away from heavy woollen cloths and leather, towards lighter, more colorful and fashionable fabrics, also helped stimulate the demand for silks.

As efforts to restrain consumption by issuing sumptuary legislation proved ineffective, the English Crown realized that promoting production was more effective in dealing with balance of trade. In the sixteenth century two proposals were made, both initiated by merchants, to bring over skilled weavers from Italy to establish production in England. In , an Italian merchant, Antony Gwydot, proposed to introduce silk weaving into Southampton by bringing over eight best silk weavers with their wives and children totaling 24 people from Italy, with raw silk to be imported from Antwerp.

However, there is little evidence that these Italian workers arrived in Southampton. In , a more detailed and elaborate plan was presented by two merchants to introduce silk manufacture into London. They proposed to bring over workers from Italy, including two chief weavers with their families, one chief spinner, one dyer and one carpenter.

There is no evidence that this plan actually materialized and this illustrates that the greatest barrier to technology transfer lay not in prohibitive legislation but perhaps more in the difficulty in persuading workers to move, despite any financial incentives. It appears that Italian weavers were unwilling to uproot themselves and migrate to another country, probably due to linguistic, climatic and cultural reasons. In addition, a second problem with these proposals was their high and unrealistic expectations. Instead of focusing on developing a low grade product for which there was a large local market, plans concentrated on the manufacture of high quality and expensive silk goods for the upper end of the market, intended to replace imports.

Here planners may have overlooked the premium placed on brands. The number of migrants was crucial to diffusion. In order to set up a new industry or introduce a new technique, a certain number of workers with the relevant skills was necessary to supply the skilled labour and to teach others. The challenge in technology transfer then lay in the mobility of labour, and this was influenced by both pull and push factors. On the push side, factors such as political conflicts, warfare, and persecution were potent, and D.

Coleman has called these non-economic factors, which he believes, were the only ones capable of forcing a large number of people to uproot and move.

Many immigrant silk workers appear to have come for religious reasons, as reflected in their place of origin, time of arrival and church membership. Evidence suggests that stranger silk workers in London in the sixteenth century came predominantly from the southern Netherlands and only a handful from France itself. In the largest groups, in descending order, originated from Walloon provinces, Flanders, and Brabant.

Immigrant silk weavers from France and Italy were also recorded, but these were small in comparison to those from the Netherlands. Particularly striking was the number of silk weavers from Walloon provinces, which increased dramatically at the end of the sixteenth century as a result of continued political and religious upheavals. A significant proportion of silk weavers also came from Flanders. As has been noted earlier, Bruges was once an important centre of silk manufacture but this industry had declined by s.

The number from Brabant rose from 9 to 18 between and , with two-thirds arrived in the period between and This insignificant scale of immigration after reflects the relative unattractiveness of London to many potential emigrants leaving Antwerp. Indeed, many Antwerp silk weavers, along with others, chose to move to Amsterdam instead, laying the foundations of the silk industry there. Several of the silk workers from Walloon provinces escaped to London to avoid persecution.

Guillaume Coppin, Wolfgang de Faloize, Pierre Gruel, Bon Raparlier, who indicated in the Return of that they were silk weavers from Valenciennes, had all been banished from that city, and their goods confiscated by the Conseil des Troubles. A major problem with the earlier proposals concerned the number of workers. The proposals in and involved the recruitment of a total of some 20 workers, a number probably insufficient to exert a quick and visible impact. The industry had a higher chance of success after s because of a sizeable number of workers involved.

In , stranger heads of households and their servants were recorded as working in silk manufacture, and by the number had risen to If their wives and children were also counted, the total was probably 1, people or more. Instead of making high quality and expensive silks to compete with Italian silks, the refugees focused on making a lower-grade product, probably making silk goods similar to the kinds developed in the Low Countries.

Silk was an expensive raw material, and an innovation developed in the Low Countries was to mix it with other fibres such as linen and wool to reduce the costs. Considered unsuitable for clothing by the elite, these cheaper and mixed silks were probably used by them for linings of expensive garments and fine bed curtains, and other purposes, such as making silk handkerchiefs. Silks made in England then were designed to complement rather than substitute imports of high quality silks, and this product differentiation undoubtedly was a crucial factor in the expansion of the industry. While the wealthy classes may have been willing to buy local made silks for linings and other purposes, they were less likely to switch from wearing Italian silks to those home-made.

This may explain why, despite increased silk manufacture in England at the end of the sixteenth century, high quality silks continued to be imported in large quantities.